National Ethical Standards
- Part one
- Part two
- 1. Scope of the Standards
- 2. Ethical principles
- 3. Research and Māori
- 4. Research and Pacific peoples
- 5. Disability research
- 6. Ethical management of vulnerability
- 7. Informed consent
- 8. Research benefits and harms
- 9. Research development and design
- 10. Ethical features of studies
- 11. Research conduct
- 12. Health data
- 13. Health data and new technologies
- 14. Human tissue
- 15. Biobanks
- 16. Research with stem cells and reprogrammed cells
- 17. Compensation for injury in commercially sponsored intervention studies
- 18. Quality improvement
- Part three
2. Ethical principles
This section sets out two sets of principles that collectively form the basis for these standards: Te Ara Tika principles and bioethics principles.
Te Ara Tika is a set of Māori ethical principles that draws on a foundation of tikanga (Māori protocols and practices); ‘Te Ara Tika’ means ‘to follow the right path’ and is used in this document as a generic set of principles commonly shared by many generations and communities of Māori; however, they have application to all people in Aotearoa New Zealand (Hudson et al. 2010).
The bioethics principles that appear here have been used in many sets of human research ethics guidelines, which have carefully established and developed their implications.
The principles presented in this chapter represent the ethical sources of the more specific ‘musts’ and ‘shoulds’ within the detailed standards in the chapters that follow.
A partnership of principles
These Standards do not ethically or conceptually prioritise either of the two sets of principles. No assumption is made that they cover the same ground in all cases. However, they do have important common ground in one sense: they involve knowledge discovery through respectful and rights-based engagement between researchers, participants and communities to advance health and wellbeing. When used together, the two sets address ethical positions of different societies, thereby strengthening ethical discourse in New Zealand.
These two sets of principles are the ethical sources of the more specific standards set out in the following chapters. For example, the guideline that participants give their informed consent to participate comes from the principle of respect for people, and from the principles of mana and manaakitanga.
The principles are guides to support ethical decision-making, and should not be used as rules. In all cases, their use requires consideration of context and a well-reasoned justification.
When the principles are described in the abstract, outside of a specific context, it may become more challenging for researchers to realise them all simultaneously; they may make incompatible demands on researchers. A well-designed research project will mitigate against obstacles and identify necessary solutions.
Figure 2.1 summarises the two sets of principles. The discussion that follows explains each principle in more detail.
2.1 Researchers should consider the features of a proposed study in light of these ethical principles, and should then satisfactorily resolve any ethical issues raised by the study. The application and weighting of these considerations will vary depending on the nature and circumstances of the study in question.
Figure 2.1 – Overview of Te Ara Tika and bioethics principles
2.2 Te Ara Tika principles are tika, manaakitanga, whakapapa and mana.
2.3 The bioethics principles are beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for people and justice.
|Respect for people|